UNESCO Office in Bangkok: A Review of Education and ICT Indicators in Southeast Asia

A Review of Education and ICT Indicators in Southeast Asia

The region of Southeast Asia, comprising of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Viet Nam, is one of great diversity from economy to culture and language due to its varied history of colonisations and political evolutions. On the one hand, Brunei and Singapore are considered high-income economies and on the other, Cambodia, Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Timor-Leste are classified by the UN as least-developed countries[1]. The higher-income economies have either achieved several EFA goals or are on track while the others are left behind due to the lack of resources.

In terms of early childhood care and education, some countries like Malaysia (from 56.31% in 2003 to 84.41% in 2012), Thailand (118.52% in 2013) and Viet Nam (from 55.33% in 2004 to 81.85%118.52%) have successfully expanded the access to pre-primary education as reflected in the gross enrolment ratios over the last decade (GERs). However this picture of positivity is not reflected in the pre-primary GER of the Southeast Asia region as a whole (56.55%, one of the lowest in the region of Asia Pacific) – despite the progress from 39.00% in 2003. This is caused by great disparities between countries, for example, in providing access to vulnerable and disadvantaged children.

Source: www.unescobkk.org

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